MORMON BATTALION JOURNAL

OF

LEVI W. HANCOCK


Vol 2


October 18th to November 23rd 1846



18 day of October.     Captain Brown marched out of Santa Fe towards Pueblo this day.  Sent 14 dollars x 30 1/2 (cents) to head quarters for my family at Council Bluffs by the hand of John D. Lee.


Went to bed and dreamed that I saw murdering.  One man stone to death and it was said to me that he had murdered himself many people.  The next morning I heard that there was a man murdered and was stoned to death by the Spaniards.  They was arrested on the 19th day and our Battalion moved down the Delnort 5 miles and camped.  Some cedar brush for fuel.


20 day.    In the morning, Colonel Cook came in.  He was our new Commander.  I had not seen him to know him before.  We marched at 7 o’clock.  Passed over the baron ground, hardly fit to sprout black eyed peas and descended about 3 o’clock into a valley where the land looked better and there had been some corn raised and other stuff.


We continued along between the mountains over hills and through valleys, until we came to an old camping place where there was plenty of water and camped.  Here we was assembled and another law read.  3/4 rations a day.  No man to fire in the ranks.  No man to leave the ranks further than 1/4 mile.


This night heard that Lee and Egan had camped near Santa Fe last night.  Made 12 miles this day and here we camped where we had to go to the foot of the mountain and bring cedar sprouts and limbs to burn for cooking.


21st day.    Marched at an early hour as usual.  Passed the rough valleys over hills and rocky baron ground.  The worse kind of a road without water for man or beast.  Had water at a salt creek, which was like the Cimmaron or Arkansas Rivers, loosing and breaking out again in the sand.  We continued up this stream until we found a pass out and ascended the hill and found better going, until we again came in sight of the Delnort, then found the roads before bad.  We made 24 miles this day and camped on the bottom.


This country has been settled as Santa Fe, 490 years or more.  Here we had apples.  None but sweet grows here.  Melons and onions was also brought in for sale.  The difficulty in trading with them is in changing our money.  Small apples and the largest onions I ever saw.  24 miles.


22    Daybreak, ‘Reveille’.  Traveled down the Rio Grand bottoms.  Passed some settlement and camped on the bottoms.  Poorest kind of land.  No wood, but the smallest of cedar and brought 1 mile.  Many Indians came to camp loaded down with wood for sale.  Name of this tribe is ‘Apache’.


We passed through one town built of mud.  The fences the same.  Covered with prickly pear.  Raceways for car(ry)ing water to wet their land, miles long.  The women would run out to see an American.  Lady gave their hand and laugh.  Many peach trees in their gardens.  Many Spaniards live with them.  They have learned to.  This evening one passed our cook John Binley, bowed his head and said, “G-- D--n you.”  Meaning, How do yo do.  14 miles.


23 day.    Marched through a pleasant country, but very sandy road  A plenty of fruit, such as apples and grapes and large peach orchards.  Out of season for this fruit.  ‘Sandere’ is the name of this last town.  We passed through another this morning.  I leave space here to record it when I find the name


This day, passed the gold mines lying in a mountain we saw 4 days ago at Santa Fe, according to our traveling.  We shall not be out of sight of it for two or three days to come.  Many of the people or Indians are mostly naked, along the Rio Grand.


Continue our march until we made 12 miles.  Passed over many sand hills and over sand plains.  Hard pulling for our teams.  Passed many settlements.  I could not find the names here.  The bottoms spread out wide.  There is not any timber of any account on Rio Grand.  A few cottonwood trees. Scrubs about as big as the fruit trees is all.  On the foot of the mountains is some cedar brush 


This river is a curious concern.  Not deep, but it abounds with fowls of various kinds.  One of our men killed a partridge today and crane.  We have two days along by the side of this mountain.  It looks as if it was not more than 2 miles off, but it is about 12.  The air is so clear here that many suppose that they are near a mountain when they are not. 


As I was walking along the road against the Rabbit Ears, I was riding on a pony belonging to the Adjutant.  He came to me and said he wanted his beast to ride up to that mountain and see if he could not kill an antelope.  I dismounted and he mounted and rode on a while and come up to the guide and asked him how far it was to that mountain.  “20 miles,” said he.


About 10 o’clock the next day we camped against it and the guide said it was 12 miles there.  So deceiving is the land here that some men will bet that it is so far and know no farther when they do not get one third of the distance.


Now I give the names of the towns we passed through on this river.  First is St. Philip.  2 is Algedone.  3 is Barnalier.  4th Sandach.  5th is Alberkerk.  Next is Jesletter.  The town is ahead.  I have just got the name.  The name of the dry creek we came down from Santa Fe, before we came to Rio Grand, is Galesteea.  It looks as if much water run here at some parts of the seasons.  24 miles travel that day.


24th day.    ‘Reveille’ at break of day.  Marched at 8 o’clock and passed through Jeslett and some other small towns.  In one was a man called ‘Armeho’.  A nephew of the man who met General Corney at the narrow pass, 15 miles from Santa Fe, towards the States. 


We passed down the Rio Grand until we made 12 miles over the worst sand we have found from Santa Fe here.  This day came in an express to have us hurry on.  Corney wanted help.  The Spaniards had met him at the copper mines and would not let him pass.  It was expected that he would have to fight.  Before we could get there at night, we found that it was all a hoax and no danger.


25th    We passed through Paphortehoh and Lentamade.  20 miles and camped near town.


26th    Marched through Loonah and Japoaldonis and camped between a little town called Javis.  Sand road nearly all way down this river.  Here the land has to be watered from the canals.  These little towns are mostly inhabited by the Indians and Spaniards.


The Indians from the mountains, a wild, robbing, plundering race, often descend from the mountains and drive off large flocks of sheep, goats and oxen, out of the valley of Rio Grand.  Some call it Rio Delnort.  Some Delnort.  Santa Fe is on one branch of it, so said. 


Here, two or three days ago, there was about 15 hundred head of creatures drove out of these bottoms.  I was told yesterday and we did not see them, but they passed on ahead of us.  If we could have catched them, there would have been fighting. 


I’m told that these people often have fights and the Spaniards always get beat.  I was told that they had one battle on this valley.  70 Indians against 5 or 6 hundred Spaniards.  The Indians kept the field and became the masters of the land.


We are now about seventy miles from the pass where we expect to go through the mountains. 


October, 27th day.    Traveled 12 miles.  Passed through Salvanade, Savenal.  Two small towns.  Reached places.  Mud houses of the most miserable kind.  The people half clothed.  The woman as common as brutes, and painted faces.  Some look as if their faces was covered with dough. 


I was told that the corn was so low that the ears was almost to the ground.  I think I never saw so poor ground tilled before in any place, worse than the poorest land in York State.  Among the pines, it is settled on both sides of this river.  These bottoms, I am told, here is 65 or 70 miles wide.  They look as though I could travel from one to the other in less than a half day. 


28 day.    Marched through Savinal, a small mud town.  Made 8 miles and camped.  It was the worst kind of a road.


29    Traveled 13 miles through the sand roads and camped on the bottoms in a small cottonwood grove.  The most scrubby kind.  Decent feed.  Grass.  Pass no settlement today.  Some Spaniards came from the other side to trade.  Snow on the mountains.  All day today, clouds run below the tops.


30 day.    Traveled 10 miles and came to a little town.  We had a considerable trouble to get wood.  I went about one mile and found some dry limbs sticking out of the sand.  I broke some off and backed them to the camp.  In the evening there came a Spaniard and said that the soldiers had stolen some wood from him.  The wood was ordered back with it.  I held mine and used it.


Here was a grist mill, a perfect curiosity, builded with mud over small streams.  A little upright shaft and little wheel.  On the top is a bedstone and a small runner, which does the grinding.  No hoper, save a skin to hold the wheat or corn in.  From that, there is a wooden shoe like that carries it to the eye of the runner.  It then comes out meal all round the stone.  It grinds about as fast as the large iron mills hand grinders.


The name of this little town is Pulveraro.


31st day.    March 12 miles.  Passed through Souckramorus, a town nearly as large as Santa Fe.  The land has been better for some 4 or 5 days back.  It appears to be better the further we descend this river.  We had better roads and camped at about 3 o’clock at ‘Mustered’.  It must be muster day.


November 1st.    Marched 12 miles.  Passed through Velopus, a small town.  The last, we are told we have to pass through.  I have seen some ruined cities or towns that have the appearance of having been thrown down by mobs. 


Subboyahs - unions.  Umbrah - man.  Mario - pickaune.  Maharoh - women.  Rile - a bit.   Quartro paces - 4 dollars.  Dos rile - 2 bits.  Sinkola paces - 5 dollars.  Quartro rilas - 4 bits, half dollard.  Dos pace - 2 dollars.  Mice - corn, (to be poison).  Yerow delborus -- decar dwarf.  Trago - wheat.  Trass - three.  Lainyah - wood.  Pedernah - leg.  Caviyo - horse.  Yahwah - mare.  Cornaro - sheep, a mutton.  Reaow -river.   Aroyoh - dry hollow.  Lomah - a hill.  Achah - an ax.  Cuchcheah - a butcher knife.  Esta - this, Esse - that. 


November 2.    Traveled 10 miles and left the Shawaway Road.  Went two miles further and camped  This evening I heard the Colonel tell about a skirmish that took place between the Navahos and the Dragoons. These Indians had taken some cattle and property of the Spaniards.  The Americans pursued them and took the property back and killed 2.  Some talk of calling on the Mormon Battalion to pursue them.


3 day.    We traveled down stream 12 miles and as soon as we arrived at the camping ground, James Hampton died.  Thus we loose one here and one there.  No man has a chance to ride unless they report themselves to the Doctor as sick and then next thing is calomel and what to do I know not.  I am called upon daily to lay hands on the sick.


Our road(s) are exceedingly rough.  Sand hills and plains make it hard pulling for our teams.  Good wood for fuel.  Only two sorts of timber, willow and cottonwood.  Some cedar and pine.  We have the best of fires.  We have been in sight of snow from Santa Fe down here.  It is hot here in the middle of the day on the river bottoms.  We have traveled nearly southwest today.  This day I heard the pilot say that if he had not been sick, he would have visited the Averhoos.


And I learned many things that would have happened if the Lord had not interfered and things too that would have been hard for us to have endured.  We must have helped to do things that we should not have liked so well, but thank God we have thus escaped and come off with honor.


This day I learned that the old man, Richard Brasier, was under guard and had been the day before and it was done by Dikes complaining against him to the Colonel of not doing as commanded.  The old man said that he never had heard any orders, but what he always obeyed.  There was other testimony in favor of the old man.


4th day.    Marched 12 miles over the roughest road I ever saw.  We had to divide our companies in two, as many parts as there was wagons, and take the lariats and tie to the wagon and pull while the rest of the men would push and so we had to work until we drawed them all over the hills and landed in Estactbo yoh, which signifies, this dry hollow.  In (which) we are now camped. 


This day I passed a team (of) oxen.  I there saw what my eyes never saw before.  Two men tied behind the wagon, cross handed and there had to march all day.  I inquired about it and it was said that the said Adjutant Dikes informed the Colonel that these men did not get up to salute him in the night while he was acting in the office of grand rounds.  Boyd Stewart, Filander Fletcher was the names of these men.


As soon as we arrived here, Brother Thomas Wolsey come up with us and brought the painful intelligence of the death of Brother Sharp, who shot himself accidentally and died about ____ miles below Bent’s Fort.  This man took our train and followed after us from Santa Fe all alone, a distance of 180 miles through an enemy’s land to the inexpressible joy of all this Battalion.  Dressed in buckskins.


It was all at the Arapaho village, where Brother Sharp shot himself, said to be a large motley looking people.  Sharp could understand them and said to Thomas Wolsey, “I know what they say and they mean to let me die and then they are calculating to kill you and then offer to keep the women, my wife, and if she does not like to live with us, kill her and offer up her child as a sacrifice.”  Sharp was shot through the shoulder and mortified and said he, “I must die,” in five days after he was wounded. 


5th day.    It look like rain, but not much fell.  Most of the tents which had been struck was ordered to be pitched again and rest all day and prepare for the morrow. 


This morning, a man came in and said that when Dikes, our ex-Adjutant, told the Colonel that these men, the prisoners, would not get up and salute him, the Colonel said, “Damn them.  They ought to be shot.  Go and tie them cross handed to the wagons and make them walk all day after they had stood four hours extra duty.”  Thus paying twice over, for they could not be released even on this morning, but must be under guard all day.


Today it seemed that the Lord’s hand is upon us.  Our teams giving out continually and laying down on the sand.  And I stop and sing thus:



Upon this sand beneath the sky

our men and mules and cattle die

Nothing but bones and skin remaining

while Mormons wander on the plains


Along the trail there can be seen

our brethren lashed behind the teams

Beside of the old Rio Grand

o’er hill and hollows marching through the sand


Officers sent by Uncle Sam

will sell their brethren for a dram

In other words forget to pray

and then will give their power away


And then some power will try to bow

and often to head quarters go

And if there’s cause for to complain

some poor soldier bares the blame


And then the orders come straight away

‘tis extra duty all next day

We must submit without one word

or he be lashed well with a chord


Provisions scarce and short of bread

on half rations we now are fed

And soon we have nothing to eat

but broke down mules to make us meat


These is some things they wish in Hell

the quinine and the calomel

For to the Doctor we must go

after we’ve heard gin along go


And if a man does not feel well

he’s forced to take some calomel

Or else he has to pack along

his knapsack, cartridge box and gun


Some go it well and other try

but soon wore out, then will die

And so our brethren are worn out

on this California route


Ho bad it is to be worn out

and know not what we are about.



Sunday, we left our camping ground, which was surrounded by a bank on all sides, save along the river side.  Here it is said that we must wait to see the movements of the Spaniards, which were calculating to fall on some traders that was ahead of us.


Here was a curiosity.  A ridge of earth some supposed it to be artificial.  I think it was a ridge of a mountain.  The center and the sand washed away


We traveled 8 miles this day over the worst kind of hills, winding our course through the hollows, until we came here where Corney left his wagons which is described above.  In the evening, we was to play the ‘Tattoo’.  At 8 o’clock and all men to be armed and equipped and ready for action.  All men was to lay with his arms by his side.  This was the night before we came here.  This evening, no ‘Tattoo’.


Seventh day.    Morning.  ‘Reveille’ as before.  A guard mounting and prepared to move.  Found our teams most wore down.  Some offered to bet that they would not stand it 50 miles further.  We had to make our road ahead.  We started and no man can express the feelings I had, to see poor creatures pull and could not scarcely pull their loads.  The men had to beat the teams and such swearing I never heard from Mormons.  Half rations to eat and then have to be made mules, to draw and push the wagons and it was over the 7th of November. 


8th day.    Marched eight miles and camped.  Still worse roads we had today.  Land good for nothing as before.


9th day.    Morning.  Marched as usual at 8 o’clock.  We are now among the, (so says our guide), Opaylek Indians.  A wandering, murdering, thieving race, who live by plundering.  Moving from one place to another.  When they have an opportunity to kill a man, they are sure to do it and then scalp him and run to the top of a hill and brag about it and shake it at the company and blackguard them. 


We camped this night about 8 miles from where we did last night, down this river.  Good firewood.  A plenty of feed for the teams that is grass.  The water on Rio Grand is good, although really most of the time it rises through the sand and considerable swift water.


I am told that down below us there is a narrow passage through the mountains where no thing can pass of any bigness.  No animal can get through nor over it.  It is a large rock rolled from the top of the mountain in the bed of the river.  The mountains on either side is 1000 feet in height.


Tuesday, November 10th.    Opalek nation.  Learned that all our sick had to go to Pueblo.  Accordingly, Lieutenant Willes was called upon to go with them.  About two o’clock they started from our camp and such a sight you ever saw.  They was stowed away in the wagon like so many dead hogs.  No better way could be done, so it was said. 


I went to the Lieutenant and asked him if he would see that they was well taken care of, when he had it in his power to do it and gave him my hand.  He griped it and I could say no more, neither could he.  Many gave me their hand and I let the Doctor choose Brother Rust to go with them.  I was glad of it, knowing him to (be) a good nurse with the sick.


In the night, Brother Wolsey and Hunt, Captain 1st, went to see them about 4 miles up the river and it was the desire of all that Wolsey should go as an express to the Bluffs (LN Note: this refers to going to the LDS Church headquarters at Council Bluffs, Iowa--to report on the poor treatment of the soldiers in the Mormon Battalion).  He said he would if I said so.  He came to me and asked me if he should go.  I told him that I should give him no council about it, but if he was a mind to pray with the rest of us that if it was right for him to go to the Bluffs, that we should dream we was at home in this night and if not, we should dream we was on the Pacific shore and I believed we should be answered.  All hands agreed to do so.  I dreamed I was at home.  Wolsey the same.  Lytle the same.  Pace the same.  “Now,” said I, “do as you please accordingly.”


This day, morning, it being the 11 day, he left us and so many people had word to send that I told them he might as well undertake to remember the whole Bible as to remember all they had already told him and he said that he would tell the situation of us all in general.  If a woman came to him and asked how her husband did, he would ask what his name was and tell all about him as he knew all in camp.  He then bid us farewell and we took up our line of march down the river. 


It is now said that we have three days to go down, then take another valley up to the copper mines.  We continued down about 12 miles and camped on a beautiful place. It was too good feed and wood.  A beautiful grove east on the river bottoms.  We look over the trees and see a mountain on the east side of the river.  Some say five miles off and some say 12.  I think the latter calculation is best.


12th day.    ‘Reveille’ at daybreak.  Camp moved at the sound of the bugle at 8 o’clock.  This day we had traveled over some few hills and dry hollows.


Spanish names: aroyah - dry river or beds where once ran.  There are many in this country.  Lomah means a high hill, not a mountain.  Youck means I, myself,  Oustary - he.  Acheayoshe alto - a small hill.  See - yes.  Se no - yes sir.   No is no.  Esta - you.  Seir - a mountain. 


This day I passed along a place through the bushes where I recollected a dream I had while I lived in Nauvoo.  I told Brother Pace and Little that I dreamed three years ago of seeing such a place and if I saw ahead where there was some trees cut down, I waked up.  There we went on and found the stumps as I had described.  I then told my dream before I got to Santa Fe.  I passed one place near a mountain where we passed by through some pine groves over the background.  I never could recollect any further until I got here.  I told the brethren I should know the end of my dream if I saw it. 

   

This day marched 15 miles.


More Spanish names:  Unah - one.  Dos - two.  Trass - three.  Quartro - four.  Sinko - five.  Sace - six.  Se’etter - seven.  Ocho - eight.  Neava - nine.  Deus - ten.  Thesa - eleven.  Dosa - twelve.  Trasa - thirteen.  Colorsa - fourteen.  Se’ensas - fifteen.  Deus grace - 16.  Deus essetta - 17.  Deus cescho - 18.  Deus senoaby - 19.  Bynety - 20.  Byne,tu,re,no - 21.  Bynetedos -- 22.  Bynetytness - 23. 


Some of our hunters have returned and say there is some signs of Indians or Spaniards.  They saw tracks of mules and they think there was about twenty of all.  Perhaps spies.  Some think there is a prospect of a fight soon. 


We are now camped on a beautiful bottom.  It looks more like living here, but it is said it cannot be inhabited on the account of Indians.  We are now within one days travel of the place where we intend to turn towards Gitng River or the copper mines.


13th day, Friday, November, 1846.    This morning marched at 8 down the river three miles and turned towards the west.  Around, under or by some hills on our right and marched towards a mountain.  Left the Rio Grand or Delnort bottoms.  A beautiful place it was if there was timber a plenty, but it is scarce and it is mostly cottonwood.  I heard the pilot say that he had seen some walnut today.  On our southeast is mountains.  Some suppose them to (be) 60 miles.  I think it is as far as that to them. 


I have taken a view and marked the shape of them and the course of all around us and the distances as near as I can guess.  The course of the river is not as it is marked or laid down on the map from Santa Fe.  There is a stream that waters the two and land around it and all the country below this river.  As soon as we hit this river, we bore a considerable west of south until we came here at the great bend, which from here runs nearly east and takes a turn down by the mountains. 


This west course we continued until we made 18 miles against the mountain as described on the picture and camped in a valley on the left nearby it.  No water nor wood, save a little brush and rain water in the holes under some rocks and that scarce.


14th day.  Morning.  I went to the ‘Nature’s Temple’.  A curious place.  It is a well and front doors or opening spaces to go and get water.  I supposed by the looks of this place, where I then was, that water was scarce, but this morning I am happily disappointed and find that by the measurement of a certain hole that resembles a well that there is 350 hogsetts of good water in the rocks.  Shaded and kept cool.  Clear and marked out the place with a pencil. 


This morning is clear and pleasant.  We have had no rains of any account since we left Santa Fe, save once and then it was in the night.  Then in the morning it was clear and pleasant.


We now have to take a westerly course.  It is about 10 o’clock and the teams are to be got up at the sound of the horn.  There is a mountain on ahead that is seen from our camp, west from this strange well, about 15 miles ahead.  We steer a little to the right of it and pass over the Codilarie Mountains and if passable, find a way we can pass with the wagons to the Gily (Gila) River. 


We are now in an unexplored region.  This place was not known before.  This well is on the right of our road down the Aroyoh about 50 yards.  On our right are mountain tops nearby.  None seen on our right from where I stand in our camp on these bottoms.  South 30 miles south east of plain from where I stand on these plains. 


We continued our course until we had made 12 miles and turned a little towards southwest into the valley, I call ‘Ash Valley’ for we found that kind of fuel for our fires. 


Here was a foundation of a house or some other building of five rooms.  Square room on the southwest corner, kitchen in center, bed on north, stoop on front, bedroom on east. 


Good water west, losing itself south immediately.  Snowy mountains on the west and northwest and south is one top seen.  It is said to be 12 miles off.  15 on the west, southwest.  40 mountains on the Rio Grand, seen plain as any other.


16 day.    Morning.  Marched at 8 o’clock from Ash Valley.  Took a south by east course over the plain and cross some fine valleys.  Beautiful land and good grass.  No timber nor water.


On my way, I had some talk with one of the hunters and he informed me that up towards the mountain west in this valley was a salt spring.  Also, the water that was running and losing itself by our camp, burst out of a rock at the foot of the mountain.  He said further that there was a vineyard of grapes, any quantity and another man said that he looked after me to find me to give me some last evening but could not find me.  These vines was about one rod and a half apart. 


This day, while I have a chance to write, I record another beef that was killed last night, that gave out and could not draw, nor walk and must die to feed the camp of soldiers.  His broth was green.  I hope the teamsters will not pound and thrash them so much hereafter, for they have been severe on them heretofore and now must say that, they have spoiled by pounding.  I have told some of the teamsters to imitate the spirit of Brother Huntsucker, as he did not whip much, nor swear any and as he had a dove light on his head, if it meant anything, it was to show that his spirit was mild and they must try and be mild also. 


We made out 15 miles and camped in a beautiful place under the mountains.  No wood but brush and soap weed or in other words, prikery plant. 


17 day.    Morning.  Passed over the mountain through a hollow as here described.  1,000 feet about (above) the Rio Grand.


This is our camping ground in this hollow, in the midst of the mountain.  I stood and took the shape of the mountain tops.  Here we rested and lay by one day.


The 18.    Three goats killed here on the mountains marked ‘X’ where they was killed the evening we come in 4 miles from the other camping ground on the other side.  Good water here in the mountain, loosing again immediately.


18 day.    I ascended the mountain on the west and took a view of all the peeks south, west and north.  A slghtly place it was. 


18 day.    ‘Reveille’ at daybreak and marched as soon as the teams could be harnessed.  From here continued west until we passed around the mountains and then turned west by northwest.   Six miles west through the mountains and 18 this last course that is 6 miles east we traveled.  Then one day rested.  Then 18 miles and camped on the 18 day on a small creek, putting down from the mountains from the northeast making its way to the Rio Grand.


Here is mountain tops, seen from where I stood on the tops of a mountain.  We have passed through this valley for 18 miles today, some say 20.  This valley is 60 miles wide.  The mountains are as deceiving here as they have been before.  Mountains that look to be one hour travel to the foot is 20 miles to it as this one under. 


20th day.    I sit down to record yesterday’s travel from memory.  A beautiful steam of water, interspersed with small timber of cottonwood and box elder.  Where we camped, filled with grapevines kept down by fires.


We took a west course through the valley, which was about as far as it was from the east to this creek, over a pleasant plain.  Good soil, but a lack of rains and timber.  I think by the account of the place given by the natives, the Spaniards, that it will bring good wheat, rye and barley, but will not raise corn with watering the ground, as in other places in this country.


The Manbier is two streams of water we crossed.  I expect they run together below us.  This stream, or streams, afford water enough to fill a canal big enough to water all the land on these bottoms.  Also, for boating and maybe streamers.  Bottoms 25 or 30 miles wide, some places 50 and more up and down.


From the top of a high mountain, where I could see 100 miles each way at the right and facing west, I could see nothing but plains and at a distance, a high hill appears to be round.


Appearance of Indians lately.  Here, found some crockery pieces.  Appears to be a pitcher.  Found a diamond stone here on the way to these bluffs where I am now.


In this camp not much game seen here.  Last night, I had a piece of venison brought me.  It was Mr. Hanks.  Once before he brought me some.


This day, 20 of November.  Friday.  Our pilot builded a fire to call the Indians if possible to trade and to be guides to lead us to Gila River.  But, when they came, the route was altered and we now have to make our way to the settlements.  I suppose by Sonora, so our route is altered. 


The Lord only knows where, but it was truly a curious sight to see them coming from the west and south, running their mules towards the smoke on the mountain, which is a sign of distress with them, and it is a law among the Indians here too, at the risk of their lives.  Some came with mules.  Some with boots and skins.  I went to their company and saw them.  I have not learned their names yet.


I have taken a view of the prospect around us in the camp I stood this day.  Rations are increase one ounce of flour.  Indians made their appearance on the southwest and soon after seen south, coming with mules. 


This day, some of the hunters brought in some deer.  I have seen 2 pass me while I have been writing. 


I have head all I could do today to get along.  My mind has been some troubled to see inducements held out to the soldiers to go and steal Indians mules and horses.  I saw there was an evil growing and I stepped out and told it to some of the brethren and now I wish to record one thing in favor of Brother Averell, that is this, when he heard of it he boldly said to the pilot, “I am informed that this would be contrary to our faith.  We believe in cultivating peace with all men and as the warring with any people was not right only to stand in self defense and guard our country when called upon in time of danger.”


This conversation took place on the Rio Grand against the Apache Nation.  Thank God we have thus far escaped all.  Appears to be right ahead if we can pass the mountains west or north.


Last night, talked with some of the brethren and told them if we would pray, I believed the Lord would turn our course.  They said they would.  Accordingly, our course is now turned west. 


On the 23 day of November, we left our camping ground before breakfast.  Think that we should find water soon.  The pilot said in 10 miles.  There, we had thought to cook and eat our breakfast.  No water in our canteens, save a little I got to give a man who said he could not stand it to travel without. 


We go to the place and here it is soldiers took a spoon and put a little in their canteens.  The Colonel would not let the soldiers drink until his mules had first drank.  Then the men.  Here they are on the ground like dogs, lapping.  Some of our men went to the mountain and found some in a hole of a rock and soon they saw some of their fellows come with a cup.  They knew where it was, but they lost a part.  This day we made 30 miles and found water.  Half of the camp came.  Remainder next day.  12 o’clock.