Nebeker Pioneer Trek

The Nebekers spent the winter of 1846-1847 in Winter Quarters, NE, after being driven, with the Saints, from Nauvoo.  Here, Henry Nebeker, who was not yet a member of the Church, but who was going along with his older brother, John and his family, met Ann Van Wagoner Havens.  She had previously been married to John Havens, but left him due to his ill treatment of her and his lack of interest in joining the LDS Church.  She was traveling with her two children, her parents and siblings.  Both of Ann’s parents died in Winter Quarters, Nebraksa in Dec. 1846 and Henry Nebeker fell in love and wanted to marry her.  But, first she required him to join the LDS Church.  He was baptized on 1 Jan. 1847 and the couple was married on 4 Jan. 1847.

That spring, the first wagon trains were organized to begin the long trek into the Rocky Mountains.  The Nebeker group was assigned to the fourth of these trains to begin their migration in mid-June under the leadership of Abraham O. Smoot.  Each wagon train contained about 100 wagons and so Brother Smoot was referred to as a “Captain of 100”.  Such trains were further divided with a “Captain of 50”, and then subdivided with “Captains of 10” (approximately 10 wagons).

George B. Wallace (later called to be the Stake President of the Salt Lake Stake) was called to be the “Captain of 50” in this 4th train, and as such he was also the Captain over the first 10 wagons.

John Nebeker (older brother of our Henry Nebeker) was called to be the captain over the 4th 10 in this group.  All of our Nebeker family were listed within this 10.

The following is taken from the record of Captain George B. Wallace.  We know of no Nebeker journals kept for this trek, but since they were a part of this very wagon train, they would have experienced the same incidents recorded here.   The remainder of this article is quoted from the Wallace record:


Capt. Geo B Wallace Book of Record pertaining to his Fifty, Organized on the West Bank of Horn River Omahaw Nation June 17th 1847 in the Fourth Hundred under the Directions of Capt. Abraham O. Smoot, Journing in the Wilderness in Company of Three other organized Hundreds under the directions of Daniel Spencer, Edward Hunter and Jedediah Grant, Which Composes the Whole Camp of Israel Now Journing in the Wilderness under the care of Directions of Two Apostles Parley P. Pratt and John Taylor. 

The Names of Each Company of Tens in the Above Named Fifty, Male & Female As Follows:

{LN note: not all of the wagon train will be listed here in the interest of time and space, but only those of special interest to us.}

4th  Ten     John Nebeker Capt.               Barbara Fitzgerald

                   Lurena Nebeker                    Geo Nebeker

                   Wm. P. Nebeker                    Peter Nebeker

                   Ira Nebeker                           Elizabeth Nebeker

                   Aaron Nebeker                      Henry Nebeker

                   Ashton Nebeker                    Ann Nebeker

                   Rosetta Nebeker                  Wm. H. Nebeker

[Page 3 of transcript]

                   Mary Ann Nebeker                Thos. I. Wheeler

                   John Murdock                       Margaret Wheeler

                   Sarah Murdock                     Margaret Wheeler

                   Gideon A. Murdock               Wm. W. Wheeler

                   Mary G. Murdock                  Daniel D. Wheeler

                   Geo Murdock                        John I. Wheeler

                   Martha Ann Henderson         Lucy Ann Wheeler

                   David Stidham                      Joseph S. Wheeler

                   Wm. Stidham                        Margaret Willis

                   Geo. C. Riser                        Ann C. Willis

                   Christianna Riser                  John H. Willis

                   Mary Ann Riser                     Lemuel Merrell

                   Joseph H. Riser                    Tho. J. Willis

                   Elizabeth Hidman                  Josapine

                   Mary Ann Fitzgerald              Wm. W. Willis

                   John Fitzgerald                     John Blackburn

                   Elizabeth Davis                     Juli Ann Blackburn

                   Maria Davis                           Elizabeth Blackburn

                   J. T. Willis                              Charles C. Chase

                   Margaret Willis                      Susan S. Chase

                   Wm P. Lane                          Charles S. Chase

                   Mariah Lane                          Sarah M. Chase

{LN Note on some of the above:

John Nebeker (Captain of this 10) – brother of Henry

Lurena Nebeker – wife of John (first of the Nebeker family to join LDS Church)

Wm. P. Nebeker – 11 year old son of John & Lurena

Ira Nebeker – 8 year old son of John & Lurena (later he was a member of Martin Handcart Rescue mission at age 17 in 1856.)

Aaron Nebeker – 6 year old son of John & Lurena

Ashton Nebeker – 3 year old son of John & Lurena

Rosetta Nebeker – 1 year old daughter of John & Lurena

Geo Nebeker – single 20 year old brother of John & Henry Nebeker

Peter Nebeker – 25 year old brother of John & Henry Nebeker

Elizabeth Nebeker – wife of Peter

Henry Nebeker – 29 year old husband of Ann Van Wagoner Nebeker

Ann Nebeker – Ann Van Wagoner, wife of Henry Nebeker

Wm. H. Nebeker – son of Ann Van Wagoner Havens Nebeker and the future grandfather of Vern L. Nebeker

Mary Ann Nebeker – daughter of Ann Van Wagoner Havens

Note too the Stidham family in this group.  The Nebekers had Stidham cousins in western Indiana who lived not too distant from Bloomfield, IL, where the Nebekers came from.}

Friday June 18, 1847, Number of Oxen & cows, Horses & Wagons in Fifty

     First Ten         Eighty four head, 12 wagons

     Second Ten    Eighty five head, 18 wagons

     Third Ten        Sixty six head, 14 wagons

     Fourth Ten    One hundred thirty seven head, 20 wagons

     First Ten         One hundred twenty one head, 20 wagons

                            19 horses in (this) fifty

Friday  June 18, 1847, Capt. Geo B. Wallace called his company to move a mile from Horn River & Camp for the Night & be ready the next morning to move in order to Plat River (15 miles from Horn River).

June Saturday 19th – arrived at P River at 5 OClock (evening).

Sunday  June 20th   Remained in Camp & News Came that Jacob Wetherbee & Alfred Lampson on there return the 19th June from Horn River to Winter Quarters on Business Was Attacted by Three Indians & in the fracus Jacob was shot.  The Indians then fled.  Jacob traveled (7 miles) by the assistant of Larwpson & Met Bishop Whitney who took him in his Wagon & Broat him Back to Horn River in Camp of T Grants Hundred & after suffering fever pains, died the next morning it being the first Death in Capt. Wallace Fifty & Grate Loss to the Company.

Tuesday  June 22   Left Platt River with all the Companies of the Camp of Israel to Journey into the Wilderness and on the 25th June Margaret Ann Turnbow Daughter of Samuel & Sylvia Turnbow was born at the mouth of Loup Fork River on the Plat the first burth in the Company & on the fifth of July Sarah Ellen Smithes Daughter of James & Nancy Smithes was born in the wilderness in the camp of Israel about 200 miles from Winter Quarters and about 1 mile from Platt River.  As we journed in wilderness over hills & valley Nothing occurred No more than common such as our Cattle some felling ill & on the 26th Augt Captain C.B. Wallce call the Company together to get there minds Whether they were willing to Sustain the Captains in Regulating teams to Strenght the Weak in order that all may move on together.  All voted to Sustain the Captain in there movement in Regulatory the teams & Co and before Reaching the Valley the Roads being So very dusty & also some Weak Teams occasion the Company to be some Separates & therefore Some Reach the Valley Before the others a Day or Two & 26 or 27 Sept Mr. Savage & Mrs. Eldredge was Marred by David Savage – in the Valley of Salt Lake & here the Company disbanded for further organizations in the Valley, however the last of the Company arrived in the Valley on the 29 Sept 1847.

G. B. Wallace Capt.

J. C. Kingsberry Clerk

[page 7 of manuscript]

Daily History

On Friday the 18th of June we were organized into companies of hundreds & of fifties & of tens.  The calculation is for two fifties to form a ring when they encamp & keep the catle inside in the night time & Keep up a guard & herd them well in the day time when we are not a traveling.   A white flag is hoisted here.

Saturday the 19.  Started, Stopt at noon & traveled on again & arrived at the Platte river at about 5 oclock same place as Pioneers first did encamp.  We already see the good of this way of encamping which is very good if only every man will do his duty.  Signs of a Killed man was found here & 2 leters in the pocket of his pantaloons, one for Pawnee & one for the Point.

Sunday the 20.  Fine weather.  Rapport came this morning that Jacob Weatherbee who went back yesterday on an expedition with an ox team was attacked by 3 Omehaws & that he was deadly wounded, thes afternoon we learn that he is dead.  Public meeting were held this day.

Monday the 21.  Very warm.  We learn that the dead body of Jacob Weatherbee was buried under the flagpole at the Elkhorn ferry.

Tuesday the 22.  Pleasant.  We Started this morning & it was a warm day & stopt again after sundown; watered our catle in the river by the light of the moon, & then took them out to feed a while.  3 indians seen to day.

Wednesday the 23.  Very warm; stopt at noon on the river bank & arrived at Shellcreek towards night, this is a beautiful place.

Thursday the 24.  This morning crossed the creek & went on in the Pioneer’s trak.  We who traveled on the off side suffered much with the dust from the others & we were glad to encamp near the river so we could have a good washing.  All is well.

Friday the 25.  Windy.  Last night court was sat: Elder Taylor charged Capt. Grant and President John Young for being disobedient & insulting the Priesthood.  They acknowledged & the good spirit prevailed again.  We understand that we are now 30 miles from the place where we expected to cross the river, but the water is too high & we will have to go up higher.  This is called Loup Fork.  Our cattle got mixed with others this morning because of the slothfulness of some individuals  Stopt to noon on the river where there is some large cottontrees.  The grass is but third on the Prairie.  This evening encamp on the river not far from an unoccupied trading house.  This afternoon meet some traders coming from the Pawnee.

Saturday the 26.  Cloudy.  While waiting for the other companies to start, Capt. Smoot called the men together & instructed them to be prayerfull, to be faithfull in their duties & ect.  After noon we crossed loockingglasscreek on a bridge.  Traveled about 15 miles to day which is more than we have done before.  Suffered much from the dust & got to the camping place after sundown when it was raining a little.  There is a large creek called Beaver creek with much of wild fruits on it.

Sunday the 27.Very pleasant, rainy towards night.  5 of the Pawnee farmers arrived here, they did not know of our being here.  Public General meetings to day.  The Conclusion is to follow up on this side of the Platte & thereby save 100 miles travel & the danger of the river.

Monday the 28.Very warm.  Crossed Beaver creek & another one & encamped at the Pawnee settlements to night.

Tuesday the 29. This morning two Pawnee Indians came to our camp.  Some of our catle is sick with foul feet.  Started over the creek & past a Pawnee village burned over the creek & past a Pawnee village, burned down by the Sioux & built up again.  At 3 oclock crossed Willow creek & encamped for the night on the Platte river.

Wednesday the 30.  Fine weather.  The banks are here very high so we have to let our catle go without water.  Past another Pawnee village & the burned ruins of one.  As the region ahead seems to be rather broken we stop here expecting to ford here.

Thursday the 1 of July.  Cool & windy.  At middle of day we crossed the river & had no accident happened to us.  From here to the main river is 25 miles, we are now towards 150 miles from winter quarters.

Friday the 2.  Cool & windy.  Traveled about 20 ms over rolling land, calculating to go to the Platte but had to stop because of rain storm within sight of the timber on the river.  No wood & water.  Four Antelopes seen to day.

Saturday the 3.  Pleasant.  Before noon we came to a muddy creek, we cut crass & throwed in & went over by doubling teams.  Near night we got into the Pioneers track & encampted on a creek not great ways from the river.  Came 18 ms to day.

Sunday the 4.  Rain this morning.  Public meeting: Elder P. P. Pratt, Taylor & Father Smith spoke against growing cold and careless & neglect to pray & to give thanks to God who is blessing of us all the time, also swering & taking the name of God in vain, they gave strong warning & spoke some of the Law which will be put in force hereafter.  They exorted to union, obedience & c. &  exorted the fathers concerning their children, how to bring them up &c, if we should forget God it would go us as it did the Lamanites &c.  Not set fire to the prairie for it is a signal for the Indians to gather together.  We have now come 175 miles.  Conclusion: to travel each company of 50 by themselves & encamp & herd by themselves.

Monday the 5.  Pleasant.  Crossed a stream called Woodriver.  Being ditained by the downbreak of a wagon we had to encamp the night far from wood & water.

Tuesday the 6.  Pleasant.  At 11 oclock last night S/r. Nancy Smithes had a daughter, she was named Sarah Ellen.  Stopt at noon to water & found some intelligence from the pioneers, they had been here on the 29th or 30th of April & it was 207 miles from Winter Quarters. There is good feed but the ground is salpitry and the catle licks it and gets sick.

Wednesday the 7.  Very warm.  Watered in the Platte at noon & to night encampted near the head of Grand Island.  It is a dreary looking country around here, the feed very poor.

Thursday the 8.  Very warm & dusty.  Stopt to noon, went on again & crossed a dry creek with large Elm trees on it & encamped on another one to night.  The companies behind us got in sight to night after not seen them for some days.  Better feed here.  Found an inscription on a Buffalo scalp saying that the pioneers were here on the 4th of May.

Friday the 9.  Very warm.  Built a bridge & went on to the Platte river which here is over a mile wide.

Saturday the 10.  Pleasant.  Expecting to find no wood for a while we stopt at noon on a goodly place where is many islands full of willows  A company of hunters went to hunt Baffalow but fond none.  Our hunters killed an antilope & a deer & some other hunters had seen great herds of Baffalos.

Sunday the 11.  Pleasant.  Making coals of willow wood & getting wagons repaired.

Monday the 12.  Warm weather.  Encamp to night on a place where is many islands with pleasant groves on.

Tuesday the 13.  Warm weather.  In the forenoon it happened that a wagon brock down & we had to turn to the first camping place on the river.

Wednesday the 14.  Fine weather.  Went on past Capt. Beach’s & Capt. Grants companies in the afternoon who had encamped because of accident: after this we went over some sandhills & encamp on the river without wood.  Above mentioned hills are 130 miles from fort Laramie & 300 from Council Bluff.

Thursday the 15.  Fine weather.  Went on & past a large grove & traveled up along a stream almost to the bluffs before we crossed it on account of swamps being on the other side of it.  Encamp to night on another creek.  Six horses was seen amongst the Buffalow but were too wild to catch.

Friday the 16.  Very warm.  A letters found to day done up in a chunch of wood gives intelligence from the pioneers & advises us to look for more such as we go along.   Encamp on the river tonight which is the north fork. 

Saturday the 17.  Cool weather.  Crossed 3 muddy places & some messengers came over the river to see us, they be long to a company encamping on yonder side of the south fork, coming from Oregon, they had encamped with the Pioneers at the south pass, 15 days ago.  They had some letters for this people & 4 men a horseback was to go over & get them but did not go for fear that they should be detained & get too far behind us. One wagon brock down crossing a muddy brook & while fixing it a large buffalo came up almost to the wagons, he was fired at & run off.  Some of our company saw this morning numerous herds of buffalo over the river & also over the bluffs.  Encamp on river.

Sunday the 18.  Pleasant.  Started & went up to the big camp here is very scarce for wood.  We learn that Capt. Grants companies herd had got frightened & brok out & 75 head got away, 12 men is appointed to go back & hunt for them.  Order given not to go hunting without appointment, also not to waste any game, as it is a disgrace to the people & displeasing to the Lord.

Monday the 19.  Very warm.  In want of wood folks has to use Buffalow dung for fuel.  Some stray oxen has been got out from amongst the Buffalos.

Tuesday the 20.  Cool but pleasant.  Did not travel to day.

Wednesday the 21.  Strong cold wind this morning.  We crossed Black river, after which we went up over the bluffs while 2-3000 head of buffalows were passing by us on both sides.  In the after noon we went over some other sandy hills & encamped on the bottom to night.

Thursday the 22.  Warm weather.  Crossed a creek & went up on the bluffs which was hard on the catle because of the loose sand.  After traveling on the Crest kind of road in the latter part of the day we encamped on the river.  Spencers company is the only one ahead of us.  Understanding that Indians was about we put on double guard.

Friday the 23.   Rain this morning.  Went on to Spencers camp 3-4 miles.  Oposite of here on the high bluff is the first Cedar trees seen of this route.  A little ways above is an Indian camp.  This afternoon nearly 300 men, women & children are here visiting us, they comes here singing & are very need (neatly) dressed: they danced for us & some of our folks turned out & danced for them after the music of a violin, a fife & two drummers; one of the canons was fired off for them twice & they were very much pleased.  Single guard again tonight.

Saturday the 24.  Warm weather.  Capt. Grants Company has come u & we are now all together.  Started & stopt at noon opposite to the camp of the Sioux which contained about 100 tents, their seems to be about 500 horses & mules.  The road is good but we had some sticky pleaces to pass over & some wagons got stuck wherefore we are all scattered again.  We encamp at a small run.

Sunday the 25.  Cloudy.  Bro. Mount got home yesterday & had found 4 of oxen of Grants company.  Ten of the Bretheren of the pioneers & of the soldiers arrived at our camp.  Encamp on the river.

Monday the 26.  Cool & cloudy.  Went over the sandy bluff which was hard on the catle, after which we had best kind of road, crossed two muddy brooks & in the afternoon forded a river & traveled till sundown.  Encamp on the river.

Tuesday the 27.  Warm weather.  As we were about to start we were again visited by a company of Sioux.  The captains selected some bread & carried it to the chief & they were much pleased. Their camp on the other side of the river consisted of about 50 tents & about 300 horses was feeding there.  To night cold rain & we encamp on the river.  Good feed is scarce.

Wednesday the 28.  Warm weather.  This morning about 20 men on horseback came down along the river on the other side & 5 of them came over to see us.  They were Kentuckians who had ben to Oregon on expedition.  Stoped a little while at noon & went over the bluff & while traveling amongs the hills a strong wind arose & it rained some & the sand flew from the hills like dust.  When we got down to the river we encamped opposite of what is called Bluff ruin.

Thursday the 29.  Cool weather.  Stopt at noon.  Good road & no creeks to cross, encamp on a high place near the river with plenty of flate wood.

Friday the 30.  Warm weather.  Went over the bluff & encamped at night above Chimney Rock. The feed here is excellent.

Saturday the 31.  Cool weather.  Met a company of men on horseback & a family with a carriage coming from Oregon, being disappointed & went back to the States by the way of winter Quarters.  They were mostly mechanics & sailors   Bro. Davenport was with them from the ferry above fort Laramie.  In the afternoon past Scotts Bluff which is 20 ms above the Chimley-rock, we traveled on table land.  Level as standing water & covered with buffalo grass only 3 inches high & great many prickly pares.  Encamp on the river to night with good feed for our catle.  We have experient that the catle does travel amader when they don’t eat at noon when the weather is hot & the feet good. 

Sunday the 1 of August.  Fine weather.  This afternoon capt. Smoot called a meeting in his company of hundred  He gave many instructions & exorted the Bretheren to obedience that we might be united & the captains to stand in their places & respect their offices as well as the priesthood for they are given to them on the same principles as it & to handle any body who were out of the way with case & kindly & if that were not help it was time to command them.  The Bretheren should considr that this journeying is a great scool to us & that we may expect to be called to lead companies this very same way to Zion & then we will want them to be subject to us.

Monday the 2.  Fine weather.  Three men has arrived at our camp from fort Laramie to see us.  For Good road whole day.  Encamp on the river.

Tuesday the 3.  Warm weather.  Pst through a narrow pass between the river & the bluff & encamp to night on a bushy place near the river,  We met Bro Jones, Willey & others who are going with some of the Officers of the batallion to fort Leavenworth.

Wednesday the 4.  Warm  windy.  Very sandy road, crossed Rawhide creek which is dry.  Encamp on the river.

Thursday the 5.  Warm weather. Traveled on a crossed the river at the old fort called LaPlatte, it is 2 miles north of the new fort John which lies on the fort called Laramie.  On the south side we got into the Oregon traille & went on about 2 – ½ mile.  Plenty of wood but very poor feed.

Friday the 6.  Warm weather.  Concluded to stay here & repair wagons &c.

Saturday the 7.  Warm weather.  Some of the bretheren went up into the mountains to make tar, built several kilns but produced but a few pints while others who took the pine roots down & built their kilns in the river bank produced a number of Gallons, the reason was that they in the mountains could not be made tight enough to keep from catching fire & burn up.

Sunday the 8.  Warm weather with rain & thunders.  The Brethren & Sisters are hard to work, black smithing, wagonmaking, tar making, washing soapmakaing &c.  Our catle is over the river doing well.

Monday the 9.  Warm weather.  Same business going on yet.

Tuesday the 10.  Heavy rain with thunder in the forenoon.  & started in the afternoon & went up over the bluff & encamped about 12 miles above the fore. 

Wednesday the 11  Warm weather.  Started early expecting to have to go 17 miles to get water.  We went through a long pass between the Black hills, past what is called the warm spring & went up on the hills where we had excellent road & at noon went down into the valley with a dry river in it.  Encamp to night in a burned grove.

Thursday the 12.  Pleasant.  Stopt to day for the benefit of our catle.  But in the afternoon learning that there is a better place of the catle 2 ml ahead we got up our catle & went on.

Friday the 13.  Cold morning.  The second fifty which is here also, had 11 horses & 1 mule stolen last night by the Crow Indians.  Beares has been seen here.  Having some trouble to find our catle we got a rather late start & soon had to stopt again while fixing a wagon wheel & went on again at noon & traveled in the dry river 2 ml & crossed it 5 times which makes 11 times in the whole length.  Went up on to a very high hill with some very large stone on & going down again the road was very bad and a wagon broke down.  Encamp in a cotton grove   Here is a spring called Kinballs spring.

Saturday the 14.  Cloudy morning.  Went out from here & up on very high hills by doubling teams & it was noon when we all got up; one wagon broke   Went down again & crossed a creek, went up again & encamped at a spring where there was good feed.

Sunday the 15.  Pleasant cool.  Started after noon, when we got up on the high hills a hurricane did arise & we stopt until it was over.  The top blew off from one wagon.  Encamp to night with the rest of the hundred in a pleasant valley on a fine stream   Bro. Gline had arrived here from the great basin with the news that a city was laid out & fields planted 30 miles south east of the Salt Lake.

Monday the 16.  Cool & Pleasant.  Traveled on & come through a valley where every thing was red, & met Bro E. Benson, O.P. Rockwell & another man.  After coming 12 miles we encamped on a dry creek by a cold spring.

Tuesday the 17.  Cloudy weather.  Traveled on & at night encamped in a pleasant valley with a fine stream & a good quantity of timber.  This is the largest stream we have seen since we left Platte river.  In the event Elder E. Benson preached to us, telling about the beautifull land that the Lord had given to the Saints & he said that he felt like a little child & that he could go by himself & weep for joy, gave many good warnings and bid farewell.  Elder Taylor spoke some & sang, “the upper California” & it was a joyfull evening unto us all.  Hunter & Reches companies present

Wednesday the 18.  Some rain while traveling.  Stopt at noon & arived at the Platte river to night.  We learn that the crow-indians has took 8 yoke of oxen from Bro. Grants company.

Thursday the 19.  Cloudy after a cold rainy night.  Started & crossed Deer creek & stopt a mile above on the river because of rain.

Friday the 20.  Cloudy & cool Bro Benson & Rockwell started for the great Basin this forenoon.   One wagon broke down by crossing a deep place.  In the afternoon crossed a swift running creek with some difficulty.

Saturday the 21.  Cool.  Rain at noon, crossed 4 creeks & two deep hollows & encamp 3 ml below the ferry with good feed.

Sunday the 22.  Warm weather.  Stopt to rest.

Monday the 23.  Warm weather.  Started & crossed the river & had to stop because the accident happened that one of Capt. Nebeker’s little sons had his thigh broke under one of the wagons.  Our catle has been here on good grass but here is some poisonous mineral which has killed two good oxen.  After coming 12 miles we encamped on a green place,  Another ox & a cow dead.

Tuesday the 24.  Warm windy & dusty.  After noon watered our catle in a small brook & encamp tonight on an almost dry creek.  One ox died.

Wednesday the 25.  Very cold, fogy in the forenoon & windy in the after noon.  Crossing a creek it happened that a wagon tipt over & brok down.  Encamped a few miles farther down on same creek where there is plenty of very large sage-wood.

Thursday the 26.  Warm weather.  Traveled over a large sandy plain & arrived at Sweetwater near Independence rock.  Good feed.

Friday the 27.  Pleasant. According to agreement the teams were requested on the principle of equality because the catle had become very week.  Crossed the river at Independence rock & encamped to night on the river where it runs through the rocks.  One cow died. 

{LN’s note:  This spot, just a couple miles west of Independence Rock, where the river runs “through the rocks” is an interesting spot along the Sweatwater River on the Mormon Trail.  Just beyond the place of their encampment this night, and only about another mile up the trail, is the place that, nine years later, would become famous as “Martin’s Cove”, where the Martin handcart company (in 1856) would seek shelter from the terribly freezing winds by retreating up into a recessed “cove” in the side of these rocks.  This night, in 1847, little, eight-year old Ira Nebeker, as he played around the warm camp fire with his newly adopted cousin, six-year-old William Henry Havens Nebeker (Grandfather of Vern L. Nebeker) had no idea that in nine more years, he would be “called” by President Brigham Young, to return to this spot in an heroic effort to rescue the freezing immigrants of the Martin Handcart company.  The rescue party had to brave the cold and wind, just as the handcart pioneers did.  It was a terrible ordeal for everyone involved.  As a part of that effort, about 18 young men were called upon to carry these freezing saints over the river on their backs.  Most of these young men were between the ages of 19-24, but two of them were only 17.  One of these two youngest rescuers was Ira Nebeker.  Although the freezing river was only about 30-40 feet wide, it was too deep to carry a person straight across.  Instead they found a shallower ford along a sand bar, but to access this, each man would first load a weak person onto his back and then trudge down to a low spot in the bank of the river.  From there, he would wade out about five feet into the stream and then turn down river for about 40 yards, before turning right and climbing out on the opposite side; only to immediately return to the freezing water and retrace his steps for the next passenger.  In this way the water was normally only about up to their knees with the deepest spot being between 2-3 feet deep. But this allowed them to keep their passengers mostly dry.  It took this group of young heros most of the day to ferry all the immigrants and their possessions across the river.  This is truly a story of great sacrifice and charity offered by these young men.} 

Saturday the 28.  Pleasant.  Two more oxen dead.  Went 18 miles & encamped on the river.  Two more oxen dead tonight.

Sunday the 29.  Rather dusky.  Traveled on & encamp on the river again tonight after crossing two creeks.

Monday the 30.  Pleasant morning but dusty road.  After we had encamped to night on the river some of the Pioneers arrived at our camp with horse teams & on horseback.  Cold wind tonight.

Tuesday the 31.  Pleasant.  Crossed the river 3 times with difficulty & after coming 10 miles encamped on the river.  Met some pioneers.  Meeting this eve in which Bro Walker made a good speech about the valley &c.

Wednesday the 1 of September,   Pleasant.   Crossed the river, traveled 17 miles & encamped on the river again.  All well.

Thursday the 2.  Pleasant.  Started over the river & up the hills & met Bro. Pack & some more of the Brethren from the Valley with 10 or 12 wagons.  Stopt at noon, crossed the river twice more & encamped on it tonight & Bro Litle & others arrived at our camp.

Friday the 3.  Cold & misty.  Traveled over some high mountains, stop at noon & camped on an almost dry creek called Strawberry Creek.

Saturday the 4.  Warm & calm.  Crossed this creek & two more & at sundown the sweet water & encamped.  Our road on the mountains today was like a highway only better.

Sunday the 5.  Windy & dusty.  Past over the dividing ridge & encamped on the green or pacific springs after which the Pioneers arrived there & we had much pleasure.  Meeting in the evening; Bro Geo A Smith, Orson Pratt & Woodruff preached.  They said that the land which was found was preserved for this people, & that any person who enjoys the spirit of God would Know it as soon as he sees it.  They gave many good instructions & warned to be faithfull that we might not cause the wrath of God to come up on us, &c.

Monday the 6.  Pleasant.  Yesterday President B. Young proposed to stay here to day & spend the day together & all agreed to do so.  Cold & windy tonight.

Tuesday the 7.  It got to be quite late before we separated & went on each our way & it commenced snowing.  Cleared up towards night.  We did cross dry sandy at 2 oclock & little Sandy at 10 in the event (evening) when we stopt.  The road was good & the catle traveled very fast especially after sundown.  Made 28 miles.

Wednesday the 8.  Cool but pleasant.   Started at noon & went to big Sandy, 8 miles on good roads.

Thursday the 9.  Warm weather.  Went 17 miles & camped on the same creek.

Friday the 10.  Pleasant.  Good road, crossed green river & encamped.  The crossing was difficult because of the gravel, the wind & the swiftness of the water.

Saturday the 11.  Pleasant.  Traveled 16 miles to Blacks fork.

Sunday the 12.  Warm weather.  Traveled 8 miles encrossing Rams forck or muddy creek & encamped on Blacks ford after crossing it.  Some Indians came here on horseback.  Last week we traveled 107 mls.

Monday the 13.  Pleasant.  Crossed Blacks forck twice & encampt on it again after coming 16 mls.  15-1/2 to fort Bridger.

Tuesday the 14. Pleasant. Crossed a creek & encamped on Black on Hams Forck ¾ of a mile from fort Bridger.

Wednesday the 15.  Pleasant.  Crossed the creeks & past the fort encamped after coming 9 miles on a very high place.

Thursday the 16.  Very cold.  Traveled over high mountains & going down into a valley a wagon broke.  Stopt at noon & went on again till one hour after sundown & encamped on a high mountain.

Friday the 17.  Warm weather  As our catle had scattered about much, we got a late start this morning, going down on a steep road we met Father Sherwood & another man coming from the Valley.  Stopt after noon on a creek & went on again 2 ms to Bear River which is a good place & it was concluded to stay tomorrow over.  We had to double teams to get here.

Saturday the 18.   Fine weather.  The rest of our hundred arrived here.

Sunday the 19.  Warm weather, windy & dusty.  Traveled 9 miles & encamped where Brigham Young had took sick.  Plenty of good feed.

Monday the 20.  Warm weather.  Started & a wagon upsat on a sideling place & broke the tip.  Another one broke down in the afternoon.  Past Cave-rock & encamp tonight on a narrow place between the mountains, after crossing a creek 4 times.

Tuesday the 21.  Warm weather.  Started lat because some catle were missing.  Crossed the same creek severl times & encamped between the mountains.  Today some oxteams going to help Bro Grants company.

Wednesday the 22.  Cool but pleasant.  Continued our traveling between the mountains over creek & through bushes.  Crossed Weaver river & encamped sumeways up in Pratts Pass.

Thursday the 23.  Pleasant.  Past a very bad sidling place & crossed one creek often & after noon came to Kanyon creek which we crossed 6 times before we encamped at dark.  A team came up from the valley to lighten up Bro. Kinballs loads.

Friday the 24.  Pleasant.  Crossed Kanyon creek 7 times came to a muddy place where we had to double teams & we started up what is called the 5 mile hill.  Some got over & some encamped on the top & others were behind. 

Saturday the 25.  Pleasant.  Started late, went over another hill & got into the valley.  Some of the weach team are yet behind.

Sunday the 26.  Reached the site of the City in the Valley.  The last of Capt. Wallace’s Fifty arrived on the 29th